Bergamot orange tree grow and care – tree of the genus Citrus also known as or Citrus bergamia plant, Bergamot plant perennial evergreen plant, grow for edible fruits, can be used also as ornamental plant and can grow as dwarf tree or bonsai, can grow in subtropical or mediterranean climate 10-12 and with the right overwinter care in hardiness zone 9b .
Leaves color green in elliptic shape, the plant has thorns.
Bergamot flower and edible fruits
Flowers fragrance in color white with purple with yellow stamen and the flower use for essential oils.
Fruit edible shape kind of pear the size ~5-8 cm’ and color is yellow-green, the taste it bitter sour. Inner fruit divided by segments, the segment cover with soft thin layer, it containing the pulp (little cones covered with a thinner layer), the peel is edible but sometimes little bitter also used as flavor and fragrant
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How to grow growing Citrus bergamia plant care:
Well-drained soil, better loamy soil, moist soil in the fruits season and better to put mulch
How to care:
Design for easy to pick the fruits (when there are thorns it’s important but not all cultivars have thorns), add to the soil, organic matter, humus and fertilizer, in location with hot summer sun that the main trunk is expose to the sun better to better to whitewash (lime paint)
What is the best way to start growing:
Plant / Seed / Cutting / Air layering
Propagate by cutting:
Propagating require: sterilize knife, sterilize soil (put the soil in microwave), soil that will keep moist like: peat soil, coconut coir or peat moss, better to do it in in temperature of 25-28C (77-82F) possible higher, high humidity, moist soil (don’t let it dry), use root growth hormone and when growing from cutting it’s important, to give humidity that will be like fog
Is it necessary to graft or cutting?
Yes, necessary to ensure the existent of the fruits and quality of the fruits and better to graft more than one cultivar or more than on citrus.
Cutting need to use for the base of the tree for: disease-free, base that fit for different soils, resistance for drought, base that won’t resist for grafting.
Difficulties or problems when growing:
When the tree young very sensitive to citrus leaf miner, thorns
Spring to summer in hardiness zone 9b-10a, spring or autumn hardiness zone 10b-11a, possible also in summer and winter the main problem it’s hot and cold days that might cause future problem and even kill the plant, hardiness zone 11b+ planted all year
How to plant:
Dig a hole as deep as the current root ball plus extra 20-40%, put in the hole organic matter, hummus and dried leaves and mix it with some soil, put the tree and loos little bit the root ball above the hole, plant the tree and cover it and don’t push the soil too much strong but not too much lightly because it won’t be stable, after planting put mulch to keep moist on soil, put water, for the next two weeks put every day (better in the morning) , better to take that the tree will be stable, and if not support it with bamboo or a stick that it won’t fall.
Pests and diseases:
Citrus leaf miner, aphids, citrus foot rot, ant, citrus gummosis
End of the winter, beginning of the spring
How to prune:
Dead branch, cross branch, density branch grown
Size of the plant:
4-9 m, 12-27 feet
Growth speed in optimal condition:
Average amount of water, usually the plant need more water in the fruits season, but usually it’s when there are rains and if raining season delay need to increase the amount of water that the fruits won’t be dry and won’t explode.
Light conditions in optimal condition for growing:
Full Sun and possible to grow in half shade in the right care but will produce less fruits
Is it possible to grow indoor as houseplant?
No, but possible to grow next to window with sun that possible, grow it as dwarf tree and will take more time to get fruits
Growing also possible in pots, planter, flowerpot, containers:
Yes, when grow in container need to choose the desirable container if it’s small plant it directly if it’s a big container bigger than 30%-50% than the root ball, every time that the tree arrive to full capacity need to switch to bigger until arrives to desirable size, better to switch the soil once in few years soil lose the viability over time and it’s efficient of care for the tree, when it’s not possible to switch all the soil just part of the soil in the side of the roots (don’t afraid from root cutting), it will bear fruits also in 5-10gallon (40 liter) container (but bigger is better), drainage it’s important and need to make holes and to use peat soil and maybe some lava grit in the bottom or something like that, put a bottom for the container and when water the plant let it fill the bottom but also need to dry in the same day, better to grow as dwarf tree or to grow it as bonsai.
Summer / Autumn
General information about the Citrus bergamia flower:
Flowers are white with yellow stamen
Thinning the bloom:
The first year should thinning the flowers
Pollination is done by:
Fruit harvest season:
Autumn / Winter
Fruits pests or diseases:
Citrus stubborn disease, citrus black spot, Alternaria
What can be done with big quantities of Citrus bergamia fruit?
Eat, juice, the rind used fragrant, fruit leather, sugary rind
Work requirements on the fruit:
Pick up (sometimes cut brunches that grow into the fruit)
How long does it take to bear fruit?
Ripening of fruit:
Possible to pick up the fruit before and let them ripening them in the house
How to grow Bergamot orange tree from seeds
Moist soil, well-drained soil, 20-27C temperature and better in sunny location
Saving and care seeds until sowing:
Dry, dark location in room temperature
Spring to early summer (possible also summer to autumn)
How to plant:
Planting in soil that keep moist, cover the seed lightly
Better in separate pots, direct on the place 3*4m (10*13 feet), for transplant 5*5 cm (2*2 inches)
Depth of Sowing:
Conditions for seeds germinate:
Keep the soil and don’t let it dry, rich soil and sunny location
Watering requires for Seeds:
Average amount of water
2-4 weeks, but can take longer
Condition of seedling:
If there is Citrus leaf miner in one of the trees in the area, better to put it in greenhouse or indoor to protect the tree, young tree very sensitive to citrus leaf miners, better to cover the soil with mulch
Alternative names: Bergamot sour orange, Bergamot lemon tree, Bergamot fruit tree
Type of Bitter orange hybrid between Bitter orange with Citron
Categories of growing
Planting Season: Autumn Planting, Spring Planting, Summer planting
Light exposure requirements: Full sun Plants
Climates that the plant can grow: Mediterranean Climate, Subtropics Climate, Tropics Climate
Growing speed of the plant: Average growing plants
Plant life-form: Evergreen, Perennial plant, Tree
Plant Uses: Edible plants, Ornamental plants
Requirements for watering the plant: Regularly water, Small amounts of water
Hardiness zones: Hardiness zone 10, Hardiness zone 11, Hardiness zone 12, Hardiness zone 13
Ornamental parts: Ornamental fruit, Ornamental leaves, Ornamental plant
Blooming season: Autumn flowers, Summer flowers
Flower colors: White flower
Harvest Season: Autumn Harvest, Winter harvest
Edible Parts: Edible Fruit
Culinary uses: Alcoholic beverages, Beverage, Dried fruit, Eaten raw, Fruit, Ice pop & Ice cream plants, Juice