Avocado tree grow and care – tree of the genus Persea also known as Avocado tree or Alligator pear, Avocado tree perennial evergreen plant, grow for the edible fruits also used as ornamental plant, can grow in tropic, mediterranean or subtropical climate and growing in hardiness zone 10+ and with the right overwinter care when it’s young in hardiness zone 9.
Leaves color green and glossy in ovate shape.
Flowers of Avocado tree unique they are also male and female but they do not open during the same hours, each flower begins its life as a female flower and end is life as a male. Female flower blooms for several hours while the male flowers are not in function about a day after the male bloom will open while the female parts no longer in function. There are two kind of varieties A and B. A variety is the species whose female flowers bloom in the morning and male bloom at the evening, B variety is the species that’s the male flowers bloom in the morning and female bloom at the evening.
Avocado tree edible fruits
Fruit mostly oval (pear shape) the skin of the fruit is can be smooth or like alligator skin colored green to brown black the fruit inside is green.
There are a variety of Avocado tree trees on different dates ripening. Possible to graft together more than one variety on the same tree will increase the chances of bearing fruit.
Two trees different varieties A and B, better frost free, mulch, rich soil, moist soil
How to care: Add mulch especially when the plant young, fertilizer at least once or twice a year different fertilizer when the plant young for growth, add iron, prune once a year, organic matter, in hardiness zone 9 better not to have tree that bear fruits in the end of the winter to early spring the strong winds of winter might makes the fruits fall from the tree or keep the tree protected from winds
What is the best way to start growing? Plant / Seed / Vegetative reproduction – Cutting or air layer
How to propagate by cutting: Propagation by cutting, when start from branch need to choose brown branch fully grown use root growth hormone that fit for woody branches, need to keep high humidity, moist soil and if put it in close box or greenhouse, need to be well ventilate that will moving of the air, watering by spraying or create fog and take care don’t let it dry, temperature of 24-28C (75-83F)
Is it necessary to graft or use vegetative reproduction? Necessary to graft in order to get good quality of fruits the tree bear fruits faster and can choose different fruits by: size, season, taste and more character that should know before grafting, possible to graft more than one cultivar on the same tree
Difficulties or problems when growing: Some species bearing all the fruit at once, pests on the fruits before fully ready
Planting season: Spring in hardiness zone 9, spring to summer in hardiness zone 10a, spring to autumn in hardiness zone 10b-11a, all year in hardiness zone 11b+.
How to plant: Dig hole bigger 50-100% more than the roots ball, add to the hole, organic matter, dead leaves and humus put back some soil and mix it and cover it with mulch to keep the moist, after this put the tree cover strong enough that won’t fall put support for the plant if needed, if the plant is not stable consider to prune, water it twice in the first day and every day for two weeks increase the amount of water until the plant establish.
Pests and diseases: Aphids, fungal, mealy bugs
Pruning season: After the fruit (in the varieties there is always fruit or flower)
How to prune: Dead branch and branch that start to grow in upside
Size of the plant? 5-20 m, 15-60 feet, dwarf cultivars can be 1.5-2.5m (5-8.5 ft.)
Growth speed in optimal condition: Medium growing and fast in the tropical
Water requirement: Average amount of water / Big amount of water
Light conditions in optimal condition for growing: Full Sun
Is it possible to grow indoor as houseplant? No
Growing is also possible in a planter /flowerpot / containers: Yes, when grow in container need to limit the growth of the plant and grow it as dwarf or bonsai need to limit the growth of the roots, container need to be 50% bigger than the root ball until the plant arrive to the desirable container, wouldn’t recommend to start from big container on small tree in this method it’s care for the viability of the soil, minimum size of the container 50-100L (10-20 gallons) and bigger is better, making enough holes in the container for good drainage also choosing soil for container important an option it’s to use potting mix or peat soil with perlite and organic matter, care instruction every few years to switch the soil with big container there is no need to switch all the soil just switch part and cut some of the roots ball (can switch from the side and the top, fertilizer at least once a year, need to add humus few better twice, water it regularly and when put bottom for the pot be aware not to let the water stay there more than one day and do not over water it’s destroy the soil and the roots, consider to graft in order to get good quality of fruits or start by cutting.
Bloom season: Spring / Summer / Autumn / Winter (different cultivars bloom in different season)
General information about the flower Male and female flower that not open during the same hours, flower begin the life as a female flower and as a male. female flower blooms for several hours while the male flowers are not in function, about a day after the male bloom will open while the female parts no longer in function. There are two kind of varieties A and B. A variety is the species whose female flowers bloom in the morning and male bloom at the evening, B variety is the species whose the male flowers bloom in the morning and female bloom at the evening
Thinning the bloom: The firsts years should thinning by hand after that there is natural thinning of the tree if it’s too much thinning there is probably lace of water
Pollination is done by: Bees and more
Fruit harvest season: Spring / Summer / Autumn / Winter (different cultivars bloom in different season) in hardiness zone 9 might won’t bear fruits in the winter
Fruits pests or diseases: Birds, aphids, rats, slugs, snails
What can be done with big quantities of Avocado tree fruits? Eat raw, salad
Work requirements on the fruit: Just to pick them up, if there is too much bird necessary to cover the tree with net
How long does it take to bear fruit? 2-4 years
Ripening of fruit: Better to pick the fruits before and let them ripen at home, in some cultivars when you feel the seeds moving inside it’s the time to pick them up
How to grow Avocado tree from seeds
Sowing requirement: Take Avocado tree seeds and place it in a glass (if using a disposable glass do not forget to recycle it) take three toothpicks and stab the seed in three places in a position that it will be stable (or two sticks). Another thing put the seed inside the water one-third and two thirds out of the water. Water should be replaced every few days. After the seed has roots it is the time to move it the ground, also possible direct sow temperature 15-32C (59-70F), better to use fresh seeds
Saving seeds until sowing: Dry, room temperature
Sowing season: Spring in hardiness zone 9, spring to summer in hardiness zone 10a, spring to autumn in hardiness zone 10b-11a, all year in hardiness zone 11b+.
How to plant: Moist soil, high humidity, better to put in water or to water a lot in the beginning until germination
Planting spacing: Different pot’s or at least 1 m (for the future 3-5 m)
Depth of Sowing: Cover all the seeds plus 3-5 cm cover with soil from the top
Conditions for seeds germinate: Moist soil, sunny location, high humidity
Watering requires for Seeds: Big amount of water
Germination time: 1-4 weeks
Condition of seedling: Moist soil, after 3-5 leaves possible to reduce the amount of water, and when grow in water, better to move it to the soil and expose to full sun, put mulch and fertilizer